Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 28. Februára 2011, 20:42

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Gallon, R. C. & Engelbrecht, I. 2011: A new Pterinochilus species from South Africa (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Harpactirinae). Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc., 15 (4): 121–126. 

Abstrakt:
A new Southern African Pterinochilus species, P. lapalala sp. n., is described, illustrated and diagnosed from its congeners. The available distribution data suggest this species is limited to the Waterberg mountains of Limpopo Province and appears to demonstrate some degree of habitat specialisation. It represents the most southerly recorded Pterinochilus species.

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Vyskyt: pohorie Waterberg, Provincia Limpopo

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 11. Marca 2011, 18:42

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Gabriel, R. 2011. A New Species of Hapalopus Ausserer, 1875 from Guyana (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Journal of the British Tarantula Society 26 (2): 76-80.
Hapalopus lesleyae

Ked Ray Gabriel triedil Lampelove zbery, ktore su umiestnene v Oxforde narazil na flasku a neskor aj zvlecku. Vo flaske bol samec tohto druhu. Zber tohto pavuka bol datovany na rok 1960 v Guyane (Kenainia Mt., Amatuk) Lampelom. Kedze pavuk je uz nejaky ten den v liehu farba sa samozrejme vytralila ale vzor na abdomene ostal. Podla vzoru na abdomene by sa dal opisat ako H. triseriatus avsak Hapalopus lesleyae ho ma v dvoch radach, vedla seba.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 23. Marca 2011, 13:38

Na 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010, Siedlce, Poland boli z oblasti Theraphosidae prezentovane tieto prednasky:

Vsetky clanky su len kratke preklady abstraktov.

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Can’t you find me? Female sexual response in Grammostola schulzei (Schmidt 1994), an Argentinean tarantula Nelson Ferretti, Sofia Copperi, Gabriel Pompozzi & Fernando Pérez-Miles
Sprava sa zaobera spravanim pred a pri pareni druhu Grammostola schulzei. Pozorovani boli 8 samci a 11 samic. Nasledovne boli zapojene do 3 serii po 20 pokusov.

1. samcov umiestnili do teraria samice ale nemali k nej pristup kvoli prekazke, nora samice bola prikryta kamenom
2. samcov umiestnili do teraria samice ale 30 cm od jej nory a prikryli ich sklenym poharom
3. samcov umiestnili do teraria samice avsak nora samice bola uzavreta kamenom. Oni sami sa nachadzali v sklenenom pohare na kameni, ktory prikryval moru samice. Do tohto sklenneho pohara bola pridana pavucina samice. Mala iniciovat zaujem o parenie.?

Samice mali na upravu svojho teraria cas viacej ako 5 dni. Ich nory im spravili tak aby mali moznost pozorovat ich prejav.

Vysledok:
Vo vsetkych troch seriach zaznamenali rozne pocty prejavov, pricom reagovali samec alebo samica. Rozoberali hlavne seizmicku komunikaciu cez substrat a "ine" komunikacie, ktore mi uz davno dobre pozname.

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Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genus Oligoxystre Vellard, 1924 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae) José Paulo Leite Guadanucci
Clanok sa zaobera jednotlivou distibuciou rodu Oligoxystre v Juznej Amerike.

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Evolution of the karyotype and sex chromosome systems in mesothelid and mygalomorph spiders Jiří Král, Lenka Dulíková, Tereza Kořínková, Jana Musilová, Magda Vítková, Marshal Hedin, Sérgio S. Henriques & Charles R. Haddad

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Resolving the nomenclatural nightmare for tarantulas with molecular analyses Stuart J. Longhorn, Steven Turner, & Alfried Voger
Abstrakt clanku je velmi vseobecny. Naraza na niektore problematicke opisy vtackarov ked bola taxonomia v plienkach. Autori dufaju, ze ich novy vyskum vdaka modernym technologiam preukaze chyby. Uz zacate vyskumy ukazuju na chybny monofyletizmus, niektorych uz existujucich rodov vtackarov.

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The fall of spiderman: silk production from tarantula tarsus experimentally questioned (Araneae: Theraphosidae) Fernando Pérez-Miles, Alejandra Panzera, David Ortiz-Villatoro & Cintya Perdomo
Podla Gorb et al. (2006) druh Aphonopelma seemanni by mal vylucovat vlakna cez tarsi na nohach. Tento zaujimavy objav sa interpretoval ako mechanizmus zlepsit lezenie vtackarov po vertikalnych plochach. Hore uvedeny kolektiv autorov vsak tento jav znova preskumal a vyvratil.

Vytvorili sa dve skupiny.
1. Aphonopelma seemanni ziadne obmedzenia
2. Aphonopelma seemanni zablokovali vyuzivanie snovacich bradaviek zaliatim do parafinu.

Pri pozorovani oboch pokusov a histologickou analyzou tarsov nezistili ziadne specialne zlazy alebo prepojenia na podobne organy, ktore by mohli napomahat tarsom na nohach vylucovat vlakna. Dalej vyvracaju niektore chyby predchadzajuceho vyskumu Gorb et al. (2006). To co sa pozoruje ako vylucovanie vlakna z tarsi je len zachytavanie pavuciny zo snovacich bradavic.

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A review of the Mygalomorphae: biology, morphology and systematics Robert J. Raven 

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 23. Marca 2011, 14:35

Abstrakty z Primer Congreso Uruguayo de Zoología 2010

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Presencia Y Ultraestructura De Fúsulas Epiándricas En Mygalomorphae (Araneae). ¿Un Método Confiable Para Sexar Juveniles De Migalomorfas? Ferretti N., Pompozzi G., Copperi S., Pérez-Miles F. & González A

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Datos Preliminares Sobre Ootecas Y Neonatos De Dos Especies De Grammostola (Araneae: Theraphosidae) En La Provincia De Buenos Aires, Argentina Copperi S., Ferretti N., Pompozzi G. & Pérez-Miles F.

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¿Una Nueva Técnica Para El Marcación De Arañas? Melo T.S., Carvalho-Souza G.F., Peres M.C.L., Browne-Ribeiro H.C., & Dias M.A

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Cortejo Y Cópula En La Tarántula Enana Homoeomma Uruguayense (Melloleitão, 1946) (Araneae, Theraphosidae) Perdomo C., Panzera A., Castro M. & Pérez-Miles F.

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Diversidad Y Fenología Reproductiva De Arañas Migalomorfas De Un Área En Forestación (Río Negro, Uruguay) Toscano-Gadea C.A., Montes De Oca L. & Costa F.G.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 23. Marca 2011, 14:40

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FERRETTI, N.; F. PÉREZ-MILES & A. GONZÁLEZ. 2010. Mygalomorph spiders of the Natural and Historical Reserve of Martín García Island, Río de La Plata river, Argentina. Zoological Studies 49 (4): 481-491. 

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Ferrettietal, Fernando Pérez-Miles, Nelson, 2010 - ARAÑAS MYGALOMORPHAE DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA CLAVE PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE ESPECIES

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 12. Apríla 2011, 20:44

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Machkour-M'Rabet, S., Y. Henaut, P. Winterton & R. Rojo. A case of zootherapy with the tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer, 1875 in traditional medicine of the Chol Mayan ethnic group in Mexico. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2011, 7:12
Abstract
Background: In practically every human culture, the use of arthropods as medicinal resources has been reported. In Mexico, the Mayan people mainly use plants but occasionally also animals and minerals in their medicine. This article is the first to report the traditional use of the tarantula Brachypelma vagans by medicine men in the Chol community, an ancient indigenous group that inhabits the southeastern part of Mexico. We also describe the utility of such arachnids in traditional medicine.

Methods: This study was carried out in different Chol communities in the states of Chiapas and Campeche (southeastern Mexico) from 2003 until 2007. We interviewed the local medicine men, patients and non-Chol people in each village visited to collect information about the rituals involved and the effectiveness of this traditional medicine and also their opinion of this traditional medicine.

Results: In all independent villages, the people who present an illness called ‘aire de tarantula’ or tarantula wind with symptoms including chest pain, coughing and asthma, were treated by the medicine man (called ‘hierbatero’) with a tarantula-based beverage. From village to village, the beverage has a similar base composition but some variations occur in additional ingredients depending on the individual medicine man. Like in all traditional Mayan medicine, the ritual of the ceremony consists of drinking the tarantula-based beverage and this is principally accompanied by chants and burning of incense.

Conclusions: The recipe of the tarantula-based beverage and the procedure of this ritual ceremony were fairly constant in all the villages visited. Our work shows that despite the tarantula’s bad image in several cultures, in others positive use is made of these spiders, as in modern medicine.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 15. Apríla 2011, 10:40

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Gabriel, R. & S. J. Longhorn. 2011. Redescription of the holotypes of Mygalarachnae Ausserer 1871 and Harpaxictis Simon (1892) (Araneae: Theraphosidae) with rebuttal of their synonymy with Sericopelma Ausserer 1875. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 19: 157-165.
Abstract:
The examination of specimens from various Neotropical tarantula genera (Theraphosidae) indicated the unique nature of monotypic genera Mygalarachnae Ausserer 1871 and Harpaxictis Simon 1892. Review of the both holotypes leads us to argue that Mygalarachnae and Harpaxictis should be removed from their current synonymy with Sericopelma Ausserer 1875. The presence of type I and III urticating hairs on the holotype specimen of Mygalarachnae firmly place it in the subfamily Theraphosinae and we argue should be restored as a valid genus, so that current placement of “incertae sedis” is inappropriate. The identity of Harpaxictis striatus is less certain, but here removed from synonymy with Sericopelma, and due to a lack of other diagnostic features is suggested as nomen dubium. Possible affinities of Mygalarachne with other valid genera of Theraphosinae are briefly discussed.
Oba rody boli predtym zaradene v rode Sericopelma.
Rod Mygalarachnae sa stava zvona platnym s jednym druhom Mygalarachne brevipes. Povodny typovy druh je z Hondurasu.
Sericopelma fallax nepatri do rodu Sericopelma. Jej dalsie zaradenie sa rozpracovava.
Druh Harpaxictis striatus je vedeny ako nomen dubum. Povodny typovy druh je z Venezuely. Doteraz slo o synonymum Sericopelma striatus podla Platnick 2011. Druh Sericopelma striatus ma teda taktiez nejasne pozadie.

Moje poznamky:
Oba typove druhy pochadzaju z depozitov vo Viedni. Mal som ich moznost si prezriet. Harpaxictis je poskodeny a chyba mu abdomen. Praca je zalozena len na taxonomickych odlisnostiach o oboch pavukoch de facto nic nevieme.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 15. Apríla 2011, 16:56

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Bertani, R., R. H. Nagahama & C. S. Fukushima. 2011. Revalidation of Pterinopelma Pocock 1901 with description of a new species and the female of Pterinopelma vitiosum (Keyserling 1891) (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae). Zootaxa 2814: 1–18.
Abstract
We revalidate the theraphosid genus Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, describe the female of P. vitiosum for first time and Pterinopelma sazimai sp. nov. from Brazil. These two species were included in a matrix with 35 characters and 32 taxa and were analyzed both with all characters having same weight and with implied weights. Searches considering all characters non-additive or some additive were also carried out. The preferred tree, obtained with implied weights, concavity 6 and all characters non-additive shows that Pterinopelma is a monophyletic genus sister to the clade Lasiodora (Vitalius + Nhandu). The presence of denticles on the prolateral inferior male palpal bulb keel is a synapomorphy of the genus.

Znovu pravoplatny rod Pterinopelma.
Pterinopelma sazimai - novy druh.
Pterinopelma vitiosum - opis samice.


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Modra znacka - Pterinopelma sazimai
Zelena znacka - Pterinopelma vitiosum

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 22. Apríla 2011, 13:16

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Ferretti, N., G. Pompozzi & F. Pérez-Miles. 2011. The species of Grammostola (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Central Argentina: taxonomy, distribution, and surface ultrastructure of coxael setae. Zootaxa 2828: 1–18.
Abstract
Three species of Grammostola (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) from central Argentina are redescribed and illustrated and their geographic distributions are reported. A new synonymy between G. vachoni Schiapelli & Gerschman 1961 and G. schulzei (Schmidt 1994) n. syn. is proposed. We did not find zones of co-occurrence with the three species but, in several localities, we found two Grammostola species in sympatry. The surface ultrastructure of three types of coxal setae was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two morphological types of spiniform setae were found on the coxae. The first type consisted of short and strong piriform setae, with the surface completely covered by ridges, and the second type consisted of long and thinner spiniform setae, with a piriform basal portion. The basal portion of the setae had ridges, the central portion was smooth and the apical zone had numerous short barbs with curved tips. The different types of setae found in these Grammostola species are clearly distinguished, and could be new useful character to diagnose at least these species. In combination with other characteristics, these characters could probably help to solve the problems in other species of this difficult genus if not also other genera.
V tejto praci je pre nas podstatna zmena - G. vachoni je synonymum pre G. schulzei. Dalej obsahuje reopis druhu Grammostola burzaquensis, podrobny popis Grammostola doeringi a uz spominany druh Grammostola vachoni.


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Zelena - Grammostola vachoni
Zlta - Grammostola doeringi
Modra - Grammostola burzaquensis

Distrubucia horeuvedenych druhov je robene priblizne podla podkladov Ferretti, N., G. Pompozzi & F. Pérez-Miles. 2011. Niektore lokality vyskytu sa prekryvaju.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 8. Mája 2011, 12:35

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Panzera A., Perdomo C. & Pérez-Miles F. (2011) Schismatothele benedettii, a new species of tarantula from amazonic Brazil (Araneae, Theraphosidae) Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. (2011) 15 (4), 130–132
Summary
We describe and figure a new species of the genus Schismatothele Karsch, 1879 from Brazil, Amazonas state, to the north of Manaus. This species comprises the first male known for the genus and the first report of the genus Schismatothele for Brazil. The new species differs from the only known species, Schismatothele lineata Karsch, 1879 in the morphology of the spermathecae in which the dorsal receptacles have internal tubular digitiform lobules.
Schismatothele benedettii
Novy druh v rode Schismatothele, cim sa ich pocet zvysil na dva. Lokalita pavuka sa nachadza 60 km na sever od mesta Manaus v Brazilii. Samec ma tibilane haky. Jedna sa o mensieho zastupcu a jeho velkost karapax plus abdomen je u samice 1,7 cm a 1,5 cm u samca. Sfarbenie: karapax, pedipalpy, kracave koncatiny cerveno-hnede, abdomen svetlo hnedy. Druhove meno pavuka je venovane Uruguajskemu spisovatelovi a basnikovy - Mario Benedettimu. Rod Schismatothele a teda ani novo popisany pavuk nemaju obranne chlpky ale aj napriek tomu su zaradene do podcelade Theraphosinae.


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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 20. Mája 2011, 21:08

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Blatchford, R., S. Walker & S. Marshall. 2011. A Phylogeny-Based Comparison of Tarantula Spider Anti-Predator Behavior Reveals Correlation of Morphology and Behavior. Ethology 117 
Abstract
We studied anti-predator strategies in nine species of tarantulas from Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Tarantulas in the New World possess urticating hairs which induce inflammation when in contact with vertebrate mucus membranes and skin. In contrast, tarantulas from the Old World lack this defense but are observed to exhibit a much greater willingness to escalate to an active defense when provoked. We had three goals: (1) describe the behaviors exhibited by each taxon in response to two levels of provocation, (2) look for the presence of alternative classes of anti-predator strategy as predicted by the Old World–New World dichotomy in aggressive defense, and (3) examine the evolution of these behaviors in the context of the phylogeny of the group. We compared the response of nine different mygalomorph spider genera to two levels of aversive stimuli: puffs of air and prodding. We found that the overall structure of the defensive behavior was similar between the different taxa, consisting of fleeing, rearing, striking, and biting. Some genera did exhibit unique behaviors such as stridulating (Hysterocrates) or rocking (Haplopelma and Selenocosmia). We found that the genera from the New World exhibited low levels of escalation in their defense behaviors, while those from the Old World readily escalated to striking and biting. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the possession of urticating hairs is associated with very low levels of active defense behaviors such as striking and biting. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that both the notable levels of aggression displayed by the African taxa tested and the relative passivity of the New World tarantulas each represents a synapomorphy.

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Rind, C., C. L. Birkett, B.-J. A. Duncan & A. J. Ranken. 2011. Tarantulas cling to smooth vertical surfaces by secreting silk from their feet. Journal of Experimental Biology 214
SUMMARY
Like all spiders, tarantulas (family Theraphosidae) synthesize silk in specialized glands and extrude it from spinnerets on their abdomen. In one species of large tarantula, Aphonopelma seemanni, it has been suggested that silk can also be secreted from the tarsi but this claim was later refuted. We provide evidence of silk secretion directly from spigots (nozzles) on the tarsi of three distantly related tarantula species: the Chilean rose, Grammostola rosea; the Indian ornamental, Poecilotheria regalis; and the Mexican flame knee, Brachypelma auratum, suggesting tarsal silk secretion is widespread among tarantulas. We demonstrate that multiple strands of silk are produced as a footprint when the spider begins to slip down a smooth vertical surface. The nozzle-like setae on the tarsi responsible for silk deposition have shanks reinforced by cuticular thickenings, which serve to prevent the shanks' internal collapse while still maintaining their flexibility. This is important as the spigots occur on the ventral surface of the tarsus, projecting beyond the finely divided setae of the dry attachment pads. We also reveal the structure and disposition of the silk-secreting spigots on the abdominal spinnerets of the three tarantula species and find they are very similar to those from the earliest known proto-spider spinneret from the Devonian period, giving another indication that silk secretion in tarantulas is close to the ancestral condition.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 16. Júna 2011, 13:35

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Ferretti, N. E. & F. Pérez-Miles. 2011. Intraspecific non-sexual interactions of Grammostola schulzei (Araneae: Theraphosidae) under laboratory conditions. Revista de Biología Tropical (International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation) 59 (3): 1173–1182.
Abstract: Intraspecific interactions of araneomorph spiders have received considerable attention, but there are few detailed studies on intraspecific interactions of mygalomorph spiders. Moreover, a thorough understanding of theraphosid biology and ecology is necessary from a conservation standpoint because natural populations may be threatened by habitat disturbances and captures for pet commerce. We described the behavior of conspecific individuals of Grammostola schulzei during non-sexual interactions, under laboratory conditions. Pairs of individuals involving adult males, adult females and juveniles were confronted and observed in resident and intruder conditions, totalizing 115 trials. When confronted two adult females, they retreated or grappled, and performed gaping display with bite attempts, usually resulted in severe injury of the intruder spiders. When confronted females with large juveniles, we frequently observed cannibalism on juveniles. Juveniles exposed to females or to other juveniles retreated or made leg tapping with forelegs and palpal drumming, which are common displays of courting adult males. Adult males courted and clasped some juveniles, but juveniles avoided or reject clasping. The behaviors observed during intraspecific interactions could play an important role determining spatial distribution and could lead to behavioral adaptations of territoriality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1173-1182. Epub
2011 September 01.

Key words: Argentinean tarantulas, conspecific non-sexual interactions, behavior, territoriality.

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Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 28. Júna 2011, 12:35

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Dor, A., S. Calmé & Y. Hénaut. 2011. Predatory interactions between Centruroides scorpions and the tarantula Brachypelma vagans. Journal of Arachnology 39 (1) :201-204.

Abstract
In the Yucatan Peninsula, the tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer 1875 is commonly associated with human settlements, as are the scorpions Centruroides gracilis Latreille 1804 and C. ochraceus Pocock 1898. Nonetheless, scorpions are virtually absent from villages showing a high density of tarantulas. Predatory interactions between these predators could explain the lack of local overlap. To test this hypothesis, we observed the behavioral interactions between B. vagans and C. gracilis or C. ochraceus in experimentally controlled conditions, and we compared these interactions to interactions between the tarantula and two prey species: cricket and cockroach. For observations, a pre-adult tarantula was placed in an experimental arena in which we introduced either a scorpion or an insect. In all, 115 trials were performed. We recorded time elapsed and behavioral responses: avoidance, attack, escape, capture, and attack success. Tarantulas preyed on all prey with the same attack success (63.8% ± 0.8%), but they attacked and captured cockroaches quicker and more often than the other prey (87% vs. 50%, and 57% vs. 30%, respectively). Scorpions attacked tarantulas in 25.5% of occasions, but they were never successful, and were killed in 9% of occasions. We conclude that tarantulas are potential predators of scorpions. Moreover, in villages where tarantulas are abundant they might prevent the presence of scorpions. Thus the presence of this non-aggressive tarantula may be beneficial from the human perspective.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Z0oMb3E » 28. Júna 2011, 21:10

Sceptic napísal:

Kód: Vybrať všetko

Dor, A., S. Calmé & Y. Hénaut. 2011. Predatory interactions between Centruroides scorpions and the tarantula Brachypelma vagans. Journal of Arachnology 39 (1) :201-204.

Abstract
In the Yucatan Peninsula, the tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer 1875 is commonly associated with human settlements, as are the scorpions Centruroides gracilis Latreille 1804 and C. ochraceus Pocock 1898. Nonetheless, scorpions are virtually absent from villages showing a high density of tarantulas. Predatory interactions between these predators could explain the lack of local overlap. To test this hypothesis, we observed the behavioral interactions between B. vagans and C. gracilis or C. ochraceus in experimentally controlled conditions, and we compared these interactions to interactions between the tarantula and two prey species: cricket and cockroach. For observations, a pre-adult tarantula was placed in an experimental arena in which we introduced either a scorpion or an insect. In all, 115 trials were performed. We recorded time elapsed and behavioral responses: avoidance, attack, escape, capture, and attack success. Tarantulas preyed on all prey with the same attack success (63.8% ± 0.8%), but they attacked and captured cockroaches quicker and more often than the other prey (87% vs. 50%, and 57% vs. 30%, respectively). Scorpions attacked tarantulas in 25.5% of occasions, but they were never successful, and were killed in 9% of occasions. We conclude that tarantulas are potential predators of scorpions. Moreover, in villages where tarantulas are abundant they might prevent the presence of scorpions. Thus the presence of this non-aggressive tarantula may be beneficial from the human perspective.
tak ono to az taka novinka nieje :)
Okrem toho čo neviem, viem všetko! (Sokrates)

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 3. Júla 2011, 11:14

Aktualizovany - The World Spider Catalog, Version 12.0

http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/cat ... SIDAE.html

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 14. Augusta 2011, 11:10

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Canal, M., D. Figueroa, C. Alfaro, T. Kawamoto, H. Torres-Contreras, P. Sabat & C. Veloso. 2011. Effects of diet and water supply on energy intake and water loss in a mygalomorph spider in a fluctuating environment of the central Andes. Journal of Insect Physiology, Article in Press, Uncorrected Proof.
Abstract. The metabolic and water evaporation strategies in spiders may be part of a set of physiological adaptations to tolerate low or unpredictable food availability, buffering spiders against environmental fluctuations such as those of the high mountains of the central Andes. The aim of this study is to analyze experimentally the variations in metabolic rate and the rate of evaporative water with food and/or water restriction in a high mountain mygalomorph spider population (Paraphysa sp.).
We found that the low metabolism of this spider was not affected by water restriction, but its metabolism was depressed after 3 weeks of food deprivation. The spider did not show seasonal metabolic changes but it presented seasonal changes in the rate of evaporative water loss at high temperatures. Females with egg sacs reduced their metabolic rate and evaporative water at high temperatures. These findings constitute a set of possible adaptations to a highly fluctuating Mediterranean environment, which is completely covered with snow for many months and then progresses rapidly to a very dry climate with high temperatures.

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GABRIEL, R. (2011): Nhandu carapoensis Lucas 1983 the Senior Synonym of Nhandu tripartitus Schmidt 1997 (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae). Newsl. Br. arachnol. Soc. 121: 11-13.
The holotype of Nhandu tripartitus Schmidt 1997 is reexamined, the spermathecal morphology is regarded as a genetic anomaly and the species regarded as the junior synonym of Nhandu carapoensis Lucas 1983 New Synonymy.
Rod Nhandu sa redukuje o jeden druh a to Nhandu tripartitus. Gabriel zistil, ze spermateka Schmidt. typoveho druhu (Nhandu tripartitus) mala anomaliu spermateky. Nhandu tripartitus sa synonymizuje s Nhandu carapoensis. Nhandu tripartitus sa asi ani neobjavil v chove, uz v Platnikovom katalogu bol vedeny ako nomen dubium s neznamou lokalitou vyskytu.

*Pozor nemylit si podobne druhove nazvy tripartitus s tripepii. N. tripepii je bezne dostupny v chovoch - ex N. vuplpinus.


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GABRIEL, R. (2011): Daytime Activity, Unusual Habitation and Appendage Regeneration in an Unidentified Species of Sericopelma Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Newsl. Br. arachnol. Soc. 121: 9-11.
Sericopelma species are generally regarded as nocturnal (Den Otter, 1974) though some specimens can be seen during dusk as they start to emerge from their burrows (pers. obs., Park, 1938). While based at The Lost and Found Eco Lodge, north of Valle de la Mina, Chiriqui Province, Panama, instances of specimens wandering in the daytime were noted.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 7. Septembra 2011, 19:29

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Machkour-M’Rabet, S., Y. Hénaut, S. Calmé & L. Legal. 2011. When landscape modification is advantageous for protected species. The case of a synanthropic tarantula, Brachypelma vagans. Journal of Insect Conservation.
Landscape fragmentation usually has a considerable effect on the genetic and demographic viability of most species because it reduces population size and increases isolation among populations. This situation provokes loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding that can lead to population or species extinctions. Some studies also show that landscape fragmentation may have no effect on or even positive consequences for species genetic diversity. The protected tarantula, Brachypelma vagans, exhibits a particular situation in the Mexican Caribbean, which has experienced high lowland and coastal fragmentation because of recent increases in agricultural, urban and touristic development. This modified landscape structure creates favorable conditions for establishment of B. vagans populations in rural settlements. Populations of this tarantula have high densities of individuals, principally females and juveniles, and gene dispersion is assumed by the rare males. Within this context, we studied the influence of natural and anthropogenic fragmentation on the genetic diversity of six B. vagans populations (five continental, one insular), together with their spatial organization. Our approach used seven inter simple sequence repeat markers, which are highly polymorphic markers. The 76 loci selected revealed high genetic variability for continental populations and a low, but not critical situation, for the insular population. We detected a good level of gene exchange among continental populations, and an evident and recent isolation of the island population. This species exhibits a metapopulation structure in the lowlands with numerous local populations where mature females exhibit high birth site fidelity. We conclude that this protected species does not exhibit characteristics to warrant its current conservation status, and we propose complete revision of the ecological and genetic situation for B. vagans in particular, and for all species within the genus Brachypelma in general.

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Estrada-Alvarez, J. & A. Locht 2011. DESCRIPCIÓN DE BONNETINA AVIAE SP.N. DE MÉXICO (ARANEAE: THERAPHOSIDAE: THERAPHOSINAE), Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 48: 151‒155.
Description of Bonnetina aviae sp. n. from Mexico (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae) Summary: A new species of Bonnetina Vol, 2000 is described, based on differences in the male palpal bulb, female spermathecae, number of teeth of the chelicerae and the proportion of the legs in the male. A taxonomic guide to the four known species of the genus is also included.

View Larger Maphref="http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msa=0&hl ... urce=embed[/gmap]

Jednotlive miesta vyskytu Bonnetina sp. su zaznacene orientacne podla Alvarez & Locht 2011.
Bonnetina cyaneifemur
Bonnetina rudloffi
Bonnetina alagoni
Bonnetina aviae

Volny preklad zo spanielciny, za hodnovernost nerucim :).
Vcelku zaujimava etymologia tohto druhu je odvodena od slova avia (spanielsky abuela), co znamena v preklade babicka (stara mama). Tento druh totiz autory prace venovali (svojim?) starym mamam. Typove druhy pochadzaju z cintorinu panteón San Efrén.
Celokova dlzka samca bez chelicier je 1,874 cm u samice 1,734. Sfarbenie vsetlo hnede, opisthosoma sfarbena o nieco tmavsie. Karapax lemovany zltkastým ochlpenim. Na abdomene pekne viditelne „zrkadielko“. Obe pohlavia su rovnako sfarbene. Samce ako aj cely rod ma tibilane haky. Bulbus samca je pri vrchole zubkovany. Pricom je to jeden z odlisovacych znakov ak opomeniem farebnu rozdielnost hlavne od Bonnetina cyaneifemur a Bonnetina rudloffi. Hlavne od Bonnetina cyaneifemur je spermateka Bonnetina aviae odlisna. Pre cely rod plati, ze spermateka je velmi jednoducha, pricom sa odlisuje hlavne Bonnetina cyaneifemur.


Doplnok:
V rode su dva typy a to (* Radan Kaderka)

*spermatéka s jednoduchým polokruhovým nebo oválným receptákulem
*spermatéka s jednoduchým štíhlým receptákulem

Momentalne nema v rode Bonnetina spermateku a la Bonnetina cyaneifemur ziadny iny druh. Vsetky su modifikacie na sposob Bonnetina rudloffi viz. obrazky.


Obrázok
Fabian Vol
spermatéka s jednoduchým štíhlým receptákulem - Bonnetina cyaneifemur

Obrázok
patotxiki

spermatéka s jednoduchým polokruhovým nebo oválným receptákulem - Bonnetina rudloffi

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 29. Septembra 2011, 16:41

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Gabriel, R. 2011. A New Species of Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Journal of the British Tarantula Society 26 (4): 157-166.
Summary
A new species of Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 is described from Panama. This species represents the first record of the genus from Panama and brings the total number of theraphosid spider species recorded from Panama to seventeen.
Aphonopelma belindae je prvym zastupcom tohto rodu v Paname a 17 druhom vyskytujucim sa na tomto uzemy. Druhove pomenovania belindae je venovane autorovej priatelke za jej pomoc pri jeho praci. Gabriel preskumal slusne mnostvo typoveho materialu celeho spektra rodu Aphonopelma.

Cely rod pomyselne rozdelil do troch geologickych skupin:

1 – 77 druhov USA a Mexiko
2 – 7 druhov Stredna Amerika
3 – 4 druhy Juzna Amerika

Samec: Holotyp pochadza z Gualaca, provincia Chiriqui, Panama. Celkova dlzka vratane chelicerae 45 mm, velkost karapaxu 17 mm. Sfarbenie tmavosede na karapaxe lemovane s ruzovo-medenym ochlpenim. Kracave koncatiny okrem femuru su svetlejsie. Ruzovo-medeny nadych mozno badat na femure a koxe vsetkych k.k..

Samica: Celkova dlzka vratane chelicerae 51,1 mm, velkost karapaxu 22 mm. Sfarbenie samice je svetlo sive, lem na karapaxe je sedobiely. Celkovy vzhlad doplna ruzovo-medene ochlpenie roznej dlzky. Obranne chlpky typu 1, videtelne cierne „zrkadielko“.

Pavuky boli nachadzane 25 cm hlbokych norach ukoncenych komorkou na otvorenych pastvinach. Medzi domorodymi obyvatelmi mal tento druh (zjavne kvoli sfarbeniu) prezyvku „pavuk z popola“.


View Larger Maphttp://maps.google.sk/maps/ms?msa=0&msi ... urce=embed[/gmap]
Aphonopelma belindae

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 5. Októbra 2011, 20:14

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Biancardi, C. M., C. G. Fabrica, P. Polero, J. F. Loss & A. E. Minetti. Biomechanics of octopedal locomotion: kinematic and kinetic analysis of the spider Grammostola mollicoma. October 15, 2011 Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 3433-3442.
Summary. Despite the abundance of octapodal species and their evolutionary importance in originating terrestrial locomotion, the locomotion mechanics of spiders has received little attention so far. In this investigation we use inverse dynamics to study the locomotor performance of Grammostola mollicoma (18 g). Through 3-D kinematic measurements, the trajectory of the eight limbs and cephalothorax or abdomen allowed us to estimate the motion of the body centre of mass (COM) at different speeds. Classic mechanics of locomotion and multivariate analysis of several variables such as stride length and frequency, duty factor, mechanical external work and energy recovery, helped to identify two main gaits, a slow (speed <11 cm s–1) one and a fast one characterised by distinctive 3-D trajectories of COM. The total mechanical work (external + internal) calculated in the present study and metabolic data from the literature allowed us to estimate the locomotion efficiency of this species, which was less than 4%. Gait pattern due to alternating limb support, which generates asymmetrical COM trajectories and a small but consistent energy transfer between potential and kinetic energies of COM, is discussed both in terms of coordination indices and by referring to the octopod as formed by two quadrupeds in series. Analogies and differences of the newly obtained parameters with the allometric data and predictions are also illustrated.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 6. Októbra 2011, 17:18

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Lucas, S. M., H. M. O. G. Filho, F. dos S. Paula, R. Gabriel & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Redescription and new distribution records of Acanthoscurria natalensis (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae). Zoologia (Curitiba, Impresso) 28 (4): 525-530.
Abstract. Acanthoscurria natalensis Chamberlin, 1917 is redescribed. The following species are considered junior synonyms of A. natalensis: A. cursor Chamberlin, 1917, A. fracta Chamberlin, 1917, A. rondoniae Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. chiracantha Mello-Leitão, 1923, and A. parahybana Mello-Leitão, 1926. All examined specimens, including the types, share the same general aspect, morphology of the sexual organs, color, and measurements. Acanthoscurria natalensis resembles A. paulensis Mello-Leitão, 1923 and A. chacoana Brèthes, 1909 in the general aspect, size, and by the morphology of the sexual organs: male palpal bulb with embolus ending like a shell, due to the prolateral and superior keels. It can be distinguished from these two species by the less developed keels and the longer embolus. The female resembles A. paulensis and A. chacoana by the fused base of the spermathecae and differs by the more evident lobes, projected from base. The distribution of A. natalensis is expanded to Brazilian states covering the Caatinga and the Cerrado biomes.
Reopis Acanthoscurria natalensis. Acanthoscurria natalensis ma nasledovne synonyma: A. cursor, A. fracta, A. rondoniae, A. chiracantha, A. parahybana.


View Larger Maphttp://maps.google.sk/maps/ms?msa=0&msi ... urce=embed[/gmap]

Priblizna plosna oblast vyskytu Acanthoscurria natalensis podla horeuvedenej prace.

Doplnujuce info. tu:
viewtopic.php?p=40242#p40242

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 25. Októbra 2011, 18:22

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Kuhn-Nentwig L, Stöcklin R, Nentwig W. 2011: Venom composition and strategies in spiders: is everything possible? Advances in Insect Physiology 40: 1-87
Po nastudovani napisem kratke zhrnutie.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 22. Decembra 2011, 21:49

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Shaw, E. M., S. P. Bennett & C. P. Wheater. 2011. Distribution of Brachypelma vagans (Theraphosidae) burrows and their characteristics in Belize over two years. Journal of Arachnology 39 (3): 515-518.
To help to address the paucity of ecological knowledge available for Brachypelma vagans Ausserer 1875, a CITES protected species, we monitored a population in Western Belize for two years to provide data for distribution and dispersal. Despite previous over-collection for the pet trade, the species is locally highly abundant in some areas of Belize. We recorded the distribution, burrow and spider characteristics of B. vagans in 2007 and 2008 at Las Cuevas Research Station, Belize. Population dynamics were compared between years, as was individual location. Over 100 burrows were located in both years; however, previous assumptions that individuals do not move burrows regularly appear negated, since only 12 burrow locations matched between years, suggesting high intra -habitat dispersal. Despite this apparent high level of movement burrows were significantly clumped, to a similar degree, in both years. This movement could be due to disturbances throughout the year, including flooding during the rainy season. Burrow size correlated with individual body size, except in a few juveniles that appear to have opportunistically claimed an empty burrow, accounting for some small animals found in large burrows.

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Guadanucci, J. P. L. 2011. The genus Plesiophrictus Pocock and revalidation of Heterophrictus Pocock (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Journal of Arachnology 39 (3): 523-527.
The genus Plesiophrictus is diagnosed and redescribed based on type material and additional specimens. The type species P. millardi (Pocock 1899) is redescribed. The genus Heterophrictus is revalidated, with H. milleti as type species. Heterophrictus differs from Plesiophrictus by the absence of serrula on maxillae and by having a rastellum on the chelicerae and stiff, spike-shaped setae on the prolateral coxae I. The significance of characters used in the taxonomy of both genera is discussed.
-vypracovane znaky rodu Plesiophrictus
-reopisy vypracovane na zaklade typovych materialov - P. millardi
- pribudol nam opat rod Heterophrictus (revalidacia)

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Fukushima, C. S., F. Pérez-Miles & R. Bertani. 2011. On the Avicularia (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Aviculariinae) species from Uruguay. Journal of Arachnology 39 (3) :528-532.
The taxonomic status of four species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 described from Uruguay: Avicularia anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842), Avicularia alticeps (Keyserling 187, Avicularia parva (Keyserling 187 and Avicularia tigrina (Pocock 1903) is discussed. The holotypes and/or original descriptions of these species were examined, and two taxonomic synonymies are needed, which are presented herein. Avicularia anthracina is transferred to Grammostola, resulting in Grammostola anthracina (C.L. Koch 1842) new combination and is considered a senior synonym of Grammostola mollicoma Ausserer 1875 new synonymy. Likewise, Avicularia parva is transferred to Catumiri Guadanucci 2004, where it is placed in the synonymy of Catumiri uruguayense Guadanucci 2004 new synonymy. Avicularia tigrina and Avicularia alticeps, originally described in the genera Ischnocolus Ausserer 1875 and Pterinopelma Pocock 1901, respectively, are herein considered nomina dubia since their types are presumed lost.
- Avicularia anthracina je starsie synonymum pre Grammostola mollicoma
- Avicularia parva je synonymum pre Catumiri uruguayense
- Avicularia tigrina a Avicularia alticeps su povazovane za nomina dubia ich typove vzorky su stratene.

Zo zoznamu rodu Avicularia si teda vyskrtneme - Avicularia tigrina, Avicularia alticeps, Avicularia anthracina, Avicularia parva.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 27. Decembra 2011, 15:21

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Guadanucci, J.P.L. 2011. Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae). The Journal of Arachnology 39:320–326
The genus Oligoxystre was originally established in 1924 for O. auratum Vellard 1924 from southern state of Goia´ s, Central Brazil. Today, the genus includes seven species: O. auratum, O. caatinga Guadanucci 2007, O. bolivianum (Vol 2001), O. tucuruiense Guadanucci 2007, O. rufoniger Guadanucci 2007, O. dominguense Guadanucci 2007, and O. diamantinensis Bertani et al. 2009. Oligoxystre mineirum new species, from the Atlantic forest domain is described here. The cladistic analysis resulted in a single tree: (O.caatinga (O.mineirum ((O.tucuruiense+O.rufoniger) (O.diamantinensis (O.bolivianum +O.dominguense))))). According to the area cladogram obtained, it is possible to draw the following conclusions: the origin of the Cerrado fauna is monophyletic; the occurrence of two sympatric species in Caatinga is due to different events; and the diversity of Oligoxystre in Serra do Espinhac¸o (O. rufoniger, O. diamantinensis and O. mineirum) is probably the result of the contact of the typical fauna of each bioma (Cerrado, Caatinga and Atlantic Forest).
V rode Oligoxystre nam pribudne novy druh Oligoxystre mineirum. Druhove pomenovanie mineirum je podla lokality nalezu Minas Gerais.


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Lokality vyskytu Oligoxystre mineirum podla Guadanucci 2011.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 28. Decembra 2011, 16:19

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Baxter R. N., 2011: A plea for standardisation of the terminology of the immature stages of spiders. Journal of British tarantula Society, 26 (4): 133-136. 
Praca sa zaobera vyvojovymi fazami pavukov (vajicko, N1, N2) do stadia, ktore mi volame "prvy zvlek". Autor poukazuje na roznorodost termimologie vo vedeckych a amaterskych pracach pri pomenovani tychto rannych stadii vyvoja. Clanok je koncipovany ako vyzva na diskusiu.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 6. Januára 2012, 23:49

Pre vsetkych fanusikov vedeckeho nazvoslovia a taxonomie nam opat updatovali Platnicka.

Verzia 12.5 - 27.12.2011
http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/cat ... SIDAE.html


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