Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Diskusia viazaná na konkrétne druhy vtáčkarov

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 17. Januára 2012, 23:35

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Trabalon, M., Carapito, C., Voinot, F., Martrette, J., Van Dorsselaer, A., Gilbert, C. and Bertile, F.: Differences in Brachypelma albopilosa (Theraphosidae) hemolymph proteome between subadult and adult females. J. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol., 2010, 10, 651-659
Abstract
The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a combination of one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The different structures determined along with possible post-translational modifications may reflect a role of hemocyanin in molting, immunity, and reproduction. In addition, despite no precise identification, additional peptide sequences from eight protein bands (four bands >200?kDa and four bands in the 95–200?kDa mass range) were determined. As reported in other spider species, the putative corresponding structures are the coagulogen protein and/or lipoproteins (HDL-1, HDL-2, VHDL) for which quantitative differences between adult and subadult individuals could be related to the molting process and/or cuticle lipid and protein composition according to the developmental stage. J. Exp. Zool. 313A:651–659, 2010.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 26. Januára 2012, 22:43

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Yamamoto, F. U., S. M. Lucas & A. D. Brescovit. 2010. Catanduba, a new Theraphosinae spider genus from Central Brazil (Araneae, Theraphosidae). Zootaxa 3172: 1–19
Abstract. A new genus, Catanduba, is proposed and supported on the cladistic analysis with the following synapomorphies: embolus tapering abruptly from half of the length, embolus tooth associated with PIK and a triangular basal nodule on male metatarsus I. Homoeomma simoni and Plesiopelma flavohirtum are transferred to Catanduba and five new species are described: C. tuskae, C. araguaia, C. piauiensis, C. canabrava and C. peruacu. The species occur mainly in central Brazil in Cerrado areas, with some species also occurring in Atlantic forest (C. tuskae sp. n.) and Caatinga (C. piauiensis sp. n. and C. peruacu sp. n.).
Mame novy rod Catanduba. V nom su druhy C. tuskae, C. araguaia, C. piauiensis, C. canabrava a C. peruacu. Druhy Homoeomma simoni a Plesiopelma flavohirtum su do tohto noveho rodu presunute ako Catanduba simoni a Catanduba flavohirtum. Cely rod tak ma momentalne 7 druhov.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 2. Marca 2012, 21:43

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Gonzalez-Filho, H. M. O., S. M. Lucas, F. dos S. Paula, R. P. Indicatti & A. D. Brescovit. 2012. On the Taxonomy of Acanthoscurria Ausserer from Southeastern Brazil with Data on the Natural History of A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae). International Journal of Zoology, Volume 2012 , Article ID 721793, 11 pages. 
The study of type material and specimens of A. gomesiana of several Brazilian spider collections offered us the possibility to redescribe this species and consider synonyms of the first one of the following: A. violacea, A. pugnax, and A. aurita. Acanthoscurria cunhae and A. melanotheria are considered Species inquirendae, the types were not located, and the descriptions are not enough for identification of similar ones. We considered as valid only two species from the southeast of Brazil: A. paulensis and A. gomesiana. The distribution range of A. gomesiana is enhanced in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Some data on natural history and phenology are presented.
Acanthoscurria gomesiana (ostava) = Acanthoscurria violacea, Acanthoscurria pugnax, Acanthoscurria aurita (zanikaju)

Acanthoscurria cunhae, Acanthoscurria melanotheria su povazovane za "species inquirendae" - ich typove druhy nebolo mozne lokalizovat, popisy nie su dostatocne na identifikaciu im podobnym vtackarom.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 4. Mája 2012, 16:56

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West, R. C., S. C. Nunn & S. Hogg. 2012. A new tarantula genus, Psednocnemis, from West Malaysia (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with cladistic analyses and biogeography of Selenocosmiinae Simon 1889. Zootaxa 3299: 1–43.
Abstract
The selenocosmiine genus Psednocnemis gen. nov. is described from the Sundaland region of South-east Asia. The type species Psednocnemis davidgohi sp. nov., which the male was incorrectly identified as Coremiocnemis hoggi West & Nunn 2010, is herein described. Cladistic analyses of 46 morphological characters and 39 exemplar taxa from 12 genera were done. The genera analysed were: Reichlingia Rudloff 2001; ingroup: Chilobrachys Karsch 1891; Coremiocnemis Simon 1892; Haplocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1996; Lyrognathus Pocock 1895; Orphnaecus Simon 1892; Phlogiellus Pocock 1897; Poecilotheria Simon 1885; Psednocnemis gen. nov.; Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999; Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 (in part: Sundaland fauna only); Yamia Kishida 1920. The results presented Psednocnemis gen. nov. as monophyletic based on presence of a distal embolic spiral curl in males and presence of a distodorsal spiniform brush on the retrolateral surfaces of coxa IV, as well as the reduction in density of hair type 4, located along the proximoventral abdomen of both sexes. Two new tribes are described: Chilobrachini trib. nov. and Phlogiellini trib. nov., based upon basal nodes with strongest branch support that best reflected natural groups. Selenocosmiini Simon 1889 and Poecilotheriini Simon 1889 are revised and redescribed. Yamia Kishida 1920 is placed into junior synonymy of Phlogiellus (syn. nov.); Chilocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1992 and Selenobrachys Schmidt 1999 are placed into junior synonymy of Orphnaecus (syn. nov.); Selenocosmia xinping Zhu & Zhang 2008 is transferred to Phlogiellus, makng the new combination Phlogiellus xinping (Zhu & Zhang 2008) comb. nov.; Selenocosmia dichromata (Schmidt & von Wirth 1992) is transferred to Orphnaecus, making the new combination Orphnaecus dichromata (Schmit & von Wirth 1992) comb. nov.; Coremiocnemis brachyramosa West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis gnathospina West & Nunn 2010, Coremiocnemis jeremyhuffi West & Nunn 2010 and Selenocosmia imbellis (Simon 1891) are transferred to Psednocnemis gen. et comb. nov. Poecilotherinae (Schmidt 1995) is no longer considered a valid subfamily and is replaced into Selenocosmiinae as the tribe Poecilotheriini. Chilocosmia barensteinerae Schmidt et al. 2010 is considered a Selenocosmiinae species incertae sedis. Ischnocolella senffti Strand 1907 is considered a nomen dubium. All other genera examined were retrieved as monophyletic in the first cladistic analyses exclusive to Selenocosmiinae genera (Australo-Papuan selenocosmiines are outside the scope of this work and are not considered). Biogeography of all Selenocosmiinae is discussed; the group is a potential model North Gondwanan taxon. A key to Psednocnemis species is provided.
Zmeny, ktore previedli su za poslednu dobu zasadne.

Pribudol nam novy rod vtackarov Psednocnemis.

Typovy druh pre tento rod je Psednocnemis davidgohi.

Podcelad Selenocosmiinae rozdelili do 4 tribusov - Chilobrachini - Phlogiellini - Poecilotheriini - Selenocosmiini.

Ostava rod Phlogiellus a rod Yamia zanika, pricom sa vsetky jeho druhy presunu do prveho menovaneho.

Ostava rod Orphnaecus a rody Chilocosmia, Selenobrachys zanikaju a vsetky druhy sa presunu do prveho menovaneho.

Selenocosmia xinping je presunuta do rodu Phlogiellus ako Phlogiellus xinping.

Selenocosmia dichromata je presunuta do rodu Orphnaecus ako Orphnaecus dichromata.

Coremiocnemis brachyramosa, Coremiocnemis gnathospina, Coremiocnemis jeremyhuffi, Selenocosmia imbellis su presunute do noveho rodu Psednocnemis.

Zanika podcelad Poecilotherinae.

Chilocosmia barensteinerae je povazovana za incertae sedis.

Ischnocolella senffti je povazovana za nomen dubium.


Momentalne to vyzera takto:

SELENOCOSMIINAE

Chilobrachini
Chilobrachys
Haplocosmia

Phlogiellini
Orphnaecus
Phlogiellus

Poecilotheriini
Poecilotheria

Selenocosmiini
Coremiocnemis
Lyrognathus
Psednocnemis
Selenocosmia

....
Selenotholus
Selenotypus

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 4. Mája 2012, 16:58

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Pérez-Miles, F. & D. Ortíz-Villatoro. 2012. Tarantulas do not shoot silk from their legs: experimental evidence in four species of New World tarantulas. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 1749–1752.
Summary. Theraphosid tarantulas, like all other spiders, secrete silk from spigots on the abdominal spinnerets. A few years ago, it was proposed that the large tarantula Aphonopelma seemanni could extrude silk from specialized spigots on the tarsi to help adhesion to vertical surfaces. This suggestion was later questioned because silk was not observed after the spinnerets had been sealed. Recently, experiments with the tarantula Grammostola rosea again suggested tarsal silk secretion. All observations of the supposed tarsal silk were made in spiders with functional spinnerets, thus contamination with silk coming from the spinnerets could not be excluded. Recent morphological arguments also questioned putative tarsal spigots and proposed that they are actually contact chemoreceptors. We here test the supposed tarsal silk secretion in Aphonopelma seemanni, Avicularia avicularia, Brachypelma vagans and Grammostola mollicoma using similar experimental conditions as the previous authors, but with sealed spinnerets. Our results clearly demonstrate that when spinnerets are sealed, tarantulas do not show any tarsal silk secretion. We reinterpret those putative tarsal spigots and discuss possible evolutionary implications of these findings.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 3. Júla 2012, 19:13

Vysla nam nova verzia Platnicka - The World Spider Catalog, Version 13.0

http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/cat ... SIDAE.html

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 11. Júla 2012, 10:54

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Ray Gabriel, Martin Hüsser, Reto Ehrler. 2012. Sphaerobothria hoffmanni Karsch 1879 a Species New to Panama (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Newsl. Br. arachnol. Soc. 123.
Tento velmi kratky clanok len informuje o presnej lokalite druhu Sphaerobothria hoffmanni a hlavne uvadza novu lokalitu jej vyskytu a to Panama. Doteraz bola vzdy uvedena len ako druh Kostariky. Na lokalite blizko Rio Sereno, Panama bola objavena v zmiesanych koloniach s neopisanymi Sericolepma sp. a Theraphosinae sp..


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Rio Sereno, Panama - ako mozete vidiet je to hranicna oblast s Kostarikou.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 6. Augusta 2012, 14:52

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Mendoza-Marroquín J. I., 2012: Bonnetina papalutlensis a new species of tarantula from Guerrero, Mexico, with notes on reproduction (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Revista Iberica de Aracnologia, Vol. 20: 57-62.
Abstract
A new tarantula species of the genus Bonnetina Vol (2000) – B. papalutlensis sp. nov. – from Guerrero, Mexico is described and figured. Characteristics of its habitat and reproduction are discussed.
Objav tohto pavuka sa datuje na rok 2007, kde sa podarilo zozbierat samicu aj samca v Papalutla, Guerrero, Mexico. Odtial je aj odvodeny druhovy nazov. Samica odlisna od inych pavukov v rode Bonnetina hlavne spermatekou. Zaujimave su aj miesta nalezisk, ktore siahaju od 630 do 1550 m.n.m. nachadzane v norach pod kameni. Parenie v prirode byva v prebieha septembra, novembra, mlade vyliezaju z kokona v aprily, v kokone byva cca. 170 pavukov.



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Mendoza-Marroquín J. I., 2012: Cotztetlana omiltemi, a new genus and species of tarantula from Guerrero, Mexico (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae). Arthropoda Scientia, 2-2012: 2-7.
Abstract
The new theraphosid spider genus Cotztetlana comprising the only species Cotztetlana omiltemi sp. nov. Guerrero, Mexico is described. This new genus has strongly incrassate tibia and metatarsus IV, and a trapezoidal eye tubercle.

Zaujimave rodove meno Cotztetlana je odvodene od slova cotztetl, ktore podla Mexickych indianov v nareci Nahuatl znamena (poukazuje na) „tucnu cast nohy“. V tomto pripade na zhrubnutu 4 kracavu koncatinu. Prva zbierka tohto druhu sa uskutocnila na uzemi Omiltemi, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico uz v roku 1985. Momentalne je vyskyt ohraniceny len na typovu lokalitu. Tento druh a rod bol popisovany prave z nalezu z roku 1985.





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Obrázok

Cotztetlana sp., nedajte sa pomylit tym zlym nazvom na fotografii.


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Schmidt G., 2012: Bonnetina (Pachytheca) tanzeri subgen. et sp. n., eine bisher unbeschriebene Vogelspinnenart aus Mexico (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae). Arthropoda Scientia, 2-2012: 21-28.
Abstract
Bonnetina (Pachytheca) tanzeri subgen. et sp.n. is the fifth species of the genus distributed in Mexico. The male is characterized by a strongly keeled embolus bearing 6 small sharp teeth on the retrolateral keel and tibia I with three spurs. The prolaterally situated one with a stout blunt black thorn, the retrolateral one with a comb consisting of four long black spikes. Metatarsus I has basal retrolateral a pad of about 20 small black blunt thorns in three rows. The purpose of this peculiar structure is unknown. The female is characterized by a single wide and low receptaculum seminis with a top apically in the middle. In both sexes the VMA are the smallest of all eyes. The subgenus Pachytheca is established for those species of Bonnetina which possess a single wide receptaculum seminis instead of a short finger like one. Apart from B. tanzeri sp. also B. alagoni LOCHT, MEDINA, 2008, and B. aviae ESTRADON-ALVAREZ, LOCHT 2011 are included in this sungenus. Type species of this subgenus is B. tanzeri. B aviae is its most closely related species. C. cyaneifemur VOL, 2000 and B. rudloffi VOL, 2001 belong to the sungenus Bonnetina.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 11. Augusta 2012, 00:24

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Kosiba, S., Allen, P. & Barrantes, G. (2012) Feeding effectiveness of Megaphobema mesomelas (Araneae, Theraphosidae) on two prey types Bull. Br. arachnol. Soc. 15 (7): 228-230
Summary
Prey selection is essential for individual fitness; therefore, it would be expected that a predator would select prey of a higher rank (energy/time) when exposed to prey of differing quality. In this paper, we compare the feeding effectiveness (biomass consumed/time) of Megaphobema mesomelas (O. P.-Cambridge, 1892) in captivity, and the preference between two prey types: beetles and crickets. Spiders are more effective when feeding on crickets. The heavy exoskeleton of beetles increases prey-handling time in order to access a relatively smaller amount of edible tissue. Effectiveness also increases with spider and prey size (mass), with larger spiders feeding more effectively on larger prey. Spiders show a strong preference for feeding upon crickets over beetles when both prey types are offered at the same time.
Autori clanku porovnali dva typy potravy, chrobaky a cvrcky, ktore boli podavane vtackarom. Oba druhy potravy vo volnej prirode tvoria cast ich jedalnicka. Skumana efektivita krmenia vzhladom na (biomasu-spotrebu-cas) pri druhu Megaphobema mesomelas bola vykonavana v zajati. Zistili, ze najviac efektivne pre pavuky, je krmenie cvrkami. Exoskeleton pri chrobakoch je pre pavuka zlozitejsie spracovat, pricom vysledne je aj relativne mensie mnozstvo jedleho tkaniva, ktore moze prijat. Pavuky dokonca vykazovali silnu preferenciu cvrckov pred chrobakmi pri krmeni ak im boli oba ponukane tu istu dobu naraz.

Cely pokus vykonavali na 10 kusoch adult samiciach druhu M. mesomelas, ktore nazbierali v Cerro Plano, Kostarike. Pokusne ubikacie boli velke 48x32x32 cm, teplota 25-27 stupnov, 70-80 percentna vzdusna vlhkost. Podklad teraria bol verny podmienkam z volnej prirody. Pocet podavanych kusov cinil 54 z toho 25 chrobakov a 29 cvrckov.

Cista miera prijimu energie (prijem energie-cas) zalezi od roznych faktoroch ako
-kvalita koristi
-cas straveni hladanim, cakanim koristi
-cas za, ktory je pavuk schopny korist spracovat

Velky pavuk potrebuje na efektivnejsi prijem energie vacsiu korist, pricom malo efektivne je krmit pavuka malou koristou, kde vynalozi viacej usilia ako samotny prijem. Na dovazok ma takato korist viacej exoskeletonu ako pozivatelnej biomasy. Taktiez je dolezita samotna korist pricom na cvrckovi oproti chrobakovi su tkaniva makke, co nevyzaduje dlhy proces samotnej pripravy koristi k potrave, je ich aj viacej k straveniu a preto ma oproti chrobakom vyhodu.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 22. Septembra 2012, 13:14

Obrázok
Chaetopelma altugkadirorum - samec
Summary
A new large Chaetopelma species from the Eastern Mediterranean is described, figured and diagnosed from its congeners. The species closely resembles Chaetopelma olivaceum (C. L. Koch, 1841) a widespread species in the region. With the description of this new species the genus Chaetopelma now comprises five species.

Kód: Vybrať všetko

A new Chaetopelma species from the Eastern Mediterranean (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Ischnocolinae) Richard C. Gallon, Ray Gabriel & Guy Tansley. Journal of the British Tarantula Society August 2012, 27 (4)
Popisany novy druh Chaetopelma altugkadirorum.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 1. Októbra 2012, 23:47

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Guadanucci, J.P.L. 2012: Trichobothrial morphology of Theraphosidae and Barychelidae spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae). Zootaxa, 3439: 1-42. 
Abstract
Clavate trichobothria are present on tarsi of all Theraphosidae and some Barychelidae spiders. They are also here reported on the tibiae of some theraphosids. A comparative analysis of their occurrence is presented. Representatives of all subfamilies of Barychelidae and Theraphosidae were studied. The following morphological patterns were recognized: filiform, thickened, and clavate. The surface of these trichobothria can be plumose or non-plumose. Five patterns in the disposition of clavate trichobothria on tarsi, were recognized: 1—two parallel rows; 2—two diverging rows; 3—one narrow, long median row; 4—one wide central row, intermixed with short covering setae; 5—a short row, restricted to the distal half of the tarsus. The disposition of trichobothria on tibiae did not differ among the taxa examined, except for those on lateral surfaces, where they can form a row or be grouped. Some patterns of morphology and distribution can be used as diagnoses of subfamilies and genera (e.g., Aviculariinae, Ischnocolus, Heterothele). The significance of such patterns in systematics is discussed and the usage in phylogeny is proposed.

Idu
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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Idu » 26. Októbra 2012, 18:47

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Bertani R. 2012: Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)
Abstract
Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena amma sp. n., Typhochlaena costae sp. n., Typhochlaena curumim sp. n., Typhochlaena paschoali sp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n., Iridopelma marcoi sp. n., Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n. and Iridopelma vanini sp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n. Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947) comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided.
Original link v ktorom sa daju najst velmi pekne fotky novo opisanych druhov. Komu nerobi problemy angličtina urcite sa tam dočita vela zaujimavych veci :)
http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys ... pelma-poco


Bolo opisanych 9 nových druhov:

Typhochlaena amma
Typhochlaena costae
Typhochlaena curumim
Typhochlaena paschoali

Pachistopelma bromelicola

Iridopelma katiae
Iridopelma marcoi
Iridopelma oliveira
Iridopelma vanini



3 doteraz platné druhy zanikli:

Avicularia pulchra + Avicularia recifiensis = Pachistopelma rufonigrum
Avicularia palmicola = Iridopelma hirsutum



Druh Pachistopelma concolor bol preradeny do rodu Tapinauchenius - Tapinauchenius concolor (nieje definitivne doriesene)

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 2. Decembra 2012, 21:54

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Ferretti N, Barneche J. 2012. New species of Eupalaestrus from Argentina (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae). Iheringia, Sér.Zool. vol.102 no.3:327-30.
ABSTRACT. A new species of Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 from northern Argentina is described and illustrated. Males and females of Eupalaestrus larae sp. nov. differ from those all other species of the genus by the color with distinct two parallel longitudinal stripes on the femora, patellae, tibiae and one longitudinal stripe reaching half of metatarsi; the presence of a thickened femur and tibia IV; a straight embolus of the male palpal bulb and retrolateral keel pronounced. Specimens were captured in Chaco province, inhabiting unflooded flat grasslands open areas inside forest in transitional Chaco eco-region.
Popisany novy druh Eupalaestrus larae.

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Siliwal, M., N. Gupta & R. Raven. 2012. A new genus of the family Theraphosidae (Araneae: Mygalomorphae) with description of three new species from the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 4(14): 3233–3254 
Abstract: In this paper, a new genus Neoheterophrictus gen. nov., with three new species, Neoheterophrictus crurofulvus sp. nov., N. sahyadri sp. nov. and N. uttarakannada sp. nov., is described from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka, India. The new genus is close to Heterophrictus Pocock, 1900 and Plesiophrictus Pocock, 1899 but has multilobed spermathecae, which was consistent in all the three species and the males possessing double tibial spur. Natural history information for all the species described is provided. We transfer Plesiophrictus bhori Gravely, 1915 to Heterophrictus and synonymise P. mahabaleshwari Tikader, 1977 with Heterophrictus milleti Pocock, 1900.
Popisany novy rod Neoheterophrictus. Patria tam N. crurofulvus, sahyadri, uttarakannada.

Plesiophrictus bhori bol presunuty do rodu Heterophrictus.

Plesiophrictus mahabaleshwari ubudne v zozname druhov, pretoze bol synonymizovany s Heterophrictus milleti.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 3. Decembra 2012, 22:49

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Bertani, R. et al. (2012): Vitalius nondescriptus comb. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae): an example of theraphosid taxonomic chaos. ZOOLOGIA 29 (5): 467–473.
Abstract:
The male holotype of Hapalopus nondescriptus Mello-Leitão, 1926 is redescribed, illustrated and compared with freshly collected specimens from the type locality. The only difference noted among the holotype and the new material concerns the development of the subapical keel. Its taxonomic position is reinterpreted and discussed, result- ing in its transfer to the genus Vitalius Lucas, Silva Junior & Bertani, 1993, and thus making the new combination Vitalius nondescriptus (Mello-Leitão, 1926) comb. nov. The female is described for the first time and the morphological variations in two males, born from the female used in the description, is presented and illustrated. The male differs from those of other Vitalius species by the palpal bulb with short apical keel and bifid tibial spur with narrow prolateral branch and almost straight retrolateral branch. The female differs from those of other Vitalius species by urticating hair of ‘type I’ having the region ‘a’ shorter than region ‘b’. Hapalopus nondescriptus has a confusing taxonomic history, since the holotype specimen was also used to describe another theraphosid species (Cyclosternum melloleitaoi Bücherl, Thimoteo & Lucas, 1971) which was, consequently, considered its objective synonym. Thus, we consider it a clear example of theraphosid taxonomical chaos.
Druh Hapalopus nondescriptus sa preraduje do rodu Vitalius.

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Hendrixson, Brent E. et al. (2012): An exploration of species boundaries in turret-building tarantulas of the Mojave Desert (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae, Aphonopelma). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (2013) 327–340.
Tarantulas in the North American genus Aphonopelma are poorly known due to their challenging patterns of morphological variation and questionable taxonomy; few specimens can be confidently identified using existing keys or comparisons to original descriptions. In an effort to identify new strategies for resolving what has been characterized as a ‘‘taxonomic and nomenclatural nightmare’’, we employed five different approaches for delimiting species in a group of closely related tarantulas from the Mojave Desert in the southwestern United States. These methods included the application of single techniques (morphology, DNA barcoding, shared genealogical exclusivity among independent loci, and generalized mixed Yule coalescent) and an integrative approach that incorporates genealogical and ecological information. Results demonstrate that the taxonomy of these spiders as presently defined underestimates actual species-level diversity and the group is in need of revision. The number of species delimited by each approach, however, was variable and we argue that it is this discordance that emphasizes the importance of incorporating multiple lines of evidence into an integrative taxonomic framework that can be used for constructing robust taxonomic hypotheses for Aphonopelma species.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 15. Decembra 2012, 17:10

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Bond JE, BE Hendrixson, CA Hamilton, M Hedin. 2012. A Reconsideration of the Classification of the Spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae) Based on Three Nuclear Genes and Morphology. PLoS ONE 7(6):e38753. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038753.
Abstract
Background: The infraorder Mygalomorphae (i.e., trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, funnel web spiders, etc.) is one of three main lineages of spiders. Comprising 15 families, 325 genera, and over 2,600 species, the group is a diverse assemblage that has retained a number of features considered primitive for spiders. Despite an evolutionary history dating back to the lower Triassic, the group has received comparatively little attention with respect to its phylogeny and higher classification. The few phylogenies published all share the common thread that a stable classification scheme for the group remains unresolved.

Methods and Findings: We report here a reevaluation of mygalomorph phylogeny using the rRNA genes 18S and 28S, the nuclear protein-coding gene EF-1c, and a morphological character matrix. Taxon sampling includes members of all 15 families representing 58 genera. The following results are supported in our phylogenetic analyses of the data: (1) the Atypoidea (i.e., antrodiaetids, atypids, and mecicobothriids) is a monophyletic group sister to all other mygalomorphs; and (2) the families Mecicobothriidae, Hexathelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae, Ctenizidae, and Dipluridae are not monophyletic. The Microstigmatidae is likely to be subsumed into Nemesiidae. Nearly half of all mygalomorph families require reevaluation of generic composition and placement. The polyphyletic family Cyrtaucheniidae is most problematic, representing no fewer than four unrelated lineages.

Conclusions: Based on these analyses we propose the following nomenclatural changes: (1) the establishment of the family Euctenizidae (NEW RANK); (2) establishment of the subfamily Apomastinae within the Euctenizidae; and (3) the transfer of the cyrtaucheniid genus Kiama to Nemesiidae. Additional changes include relimitation of Domiothelina and Theraphosoidea, and the establishment of the Euctenizoidina clade (Idiopidae + Euctenizidae). In addition to these changes, we propose a ‘‘road map’’ for future sampling across the infraorder with the aim of solving many remaining questions that hinder mygalomorph systematics.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 21. Decembra 2012, 23:40

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Guadanucci, J. P. L. & W. F. Silva. 2012. Two new species of Tmesiphantes Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) from the state of Minas Gerias, Brazil. Stud. neotrop. Fauna Environ. 47: 139-145.
Two new species of the genus Tmesiphantes from Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais are described. They comprise the first records of the genus outside the Atlantic Forest. Furthermore, the examination of all type material of the genera Tmesiphantes and Melloleitaoina, which have been suggested as sister groups, showed that the thickness of femur III, used to distinguish between them, shows a continuous variation, and the taxonomic usage of this character is discussed.
Tmesiphantes perp
Tmesiphantes riopretano

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Platnick v 13.5
http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/cat ... SIDAE.html

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 1. Januára 2013, 12:22

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Julio C. Estrada-Alvarez & Cameron H. D. (2012): Etymological origins of the generic names of Mexican tarantulas (Araneae:Theraphosidae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, n 21: 153‒160.
Abstract: The etymological origins of valid and synonymized genera of Mexican tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae) are reviewed; information on the species that are included in each genus and their current statuses are also included.
Praca je zamerana na etymologiu mexickych rodov vtackarov. Par rozborov na ukazku vyberam, ide o volny preklad. Vyznam a pozadie zrodenia vedeckych nazvov vtackarov dostava vdaka praci, iny pohlad na hru so slovami pri ich tvoreni.

Mygale (Sin. Latreille, 1802) - je z greckeho – mygale co znamena – mys polna alebo certica. Walkenaer spomina tento nazov v roku 1802 a dava mu francuzky vyznam ako Les Mygales. Autor clanku sa domnieva, ze chlpatost vtackarov mu pripominala tieto male zvierata a ustanovuje vyznam tohto slova prave na „mys polna“.

Ak ma slovo dva vyznami a jednim z nich je aj certica, preco autor skor neskumal svoje badanie aj na tento vyznam. Je mozne, ze Latreille nasiel pekne nevrleho vtackara, ktory po nom hned vykopala obranne chlpky, siel do obranneho postoja. Cize povahovo by takemuto pavukovi prisluchal vyznam – certica, dracica, furia*.

Avicularia – slovo latinskeho povodu „avicularius“, pricom bolo v jednom pripade najdene aj v starovekej rimskej kucharke s vyznamom „birdkeeper“. Autor pokracuje uz notoricky znamou rytinou od Maria S. Merian- 1705, ktora zachytava mygalomorfneho pavuka ako poziera vtaka. V roku 1758 mu Linne odvodzuje nazov Aranea avicularia pricom ho v roku 1818 meni Lamarck na Avicularia avicularia s poznamkou „pozieraju mravce a obcas vyberaju mladata vtakov z ich hniezd“. Cize Avicularia vo volnom preklade znamena nieco ako „pozierajuci vtaka“, respektivne „ta co drzi, vlastni (v chelicerach) vtacie mlada“.

Davus – je meno otroka z rimskej hry Dievca z Androsu.

Psalmopoeus – z greckeho psalmo – zvuk harfy. Nazov poukazuje na charakteristicky znak tohto rodu a to stridulacny organ v tvare lyry. Preklad celeho nazvu teda znie: „ten co vytvara zvuk harfy“

Cardiopelma – cardia – srdce. Tvar spermateky tohto druhu by mal byt v tvare srdca. Typovy druh je strateny a a ani lokalita vyskytu nie je znama.


*poznamky Sceptic

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 6. Januára 2013, 16:26

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Nanayakkara, R.P., P.J. Kirk, S.K. Dayananda, G.A.S.M. Ganehiarachchi, N. Vishvanath & T.G. Tharaka Kusuminda. 2012. A new species of Tiger Spider, Genus Poecilotheria, from Northern Sri Lanka. Journal of the British Tarantula Society 28(1): 6-15.
Poecilotheria rajaei sp.n belongs to the group of Poecilotheria that have 1 to 3 tubercles above the stridulation organ on the maxilla of the pedipalp. This structure of the organ is similar to that of P. pedserseni which is found in Sri Lanka and P. hanumavilasumica which is found in mailand India; it only resembles P. regalis by the possession of the ventral abdominal band, but is easily set apart by the marking on the legs, the stridulating organ and by other morphometrics.

Poecilotheria rajaei sp. nov.

Nova Poecka ma hned jeden primat a to asi najviac autorov podielajucich sa na jednom opise druhu v celadi Theraphosidae a to hned poctom 6 kusov.

Prvy zaznam tohto druhu sa objavil uz v roku 2009 kde ho objavili v severnej casti Sri Lanky. Pavuk bol zabity miestnymi obyvatelmi a hlavne chybali zakladne poznatky o jeho vyskyte. Autorom clanku vsak po preskumani tohto jedinca bolo hned jasne, ze ma urcite rozdieli oproti podobnej P. regalis, ktora sa vsak nachadza v Indii. Po intenzivnej praci v terene za ucasti policii sa podarilo najst samice a par juvenilnych jedincov. Vyskum bol mozny len vdaka ukonceniu 29 rokov trvajuceho konfliktu v lokalitach vyskytu tohto druhu. Prave druhovy nazov je odvodeny od mena sub-inspektora miestnej policie M. P. Rajakumara, za pomoc a asistenciu v terene. Miesto nalezu je Mankulam. Do slovneho opisu a rozdielov oproti inych Poecilotheria spp. sa pustat nejdem pretoze si myslim, ze tomu bude chybat isty vizual, ktory je potrebny mat v oku podla dolozenych obrazkov. Farebny opis je cca. na 4 strany zvysok je celkom slusna priloha a ilustracny material k noveho druhu.

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http://i1116.photobucket.com/albums/k565/gooty-fruity/38777559-0210-4BFB-9341-6D56802D06B7-1703-0000017727C4DA02.jpg

Zdroj:
http://www.arachnophilia.de/forum/poeci ... a-art.html

Ten obrazok si stiahnite pokial zije link.

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Ranil Nanayakkara, Nilantha Vishvanath: 2011. Hitherto unrecorded species of Poecilotheria (Tarantula) from Sri Lanka
Na linku si stiahnete pracu, ktora ako prva pojednavala o dovtedy neznamej Poecilotherii rajaei.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 10. Januára 2013, 22:26

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Trabalon M, Blais C. 2012. Juvenile development, ecdysteroids and hemolymph level of metabolites in the spider Brachypelma albopilosum (Theraphosidae). J. Exp. Zool. 00:1–12
Abstract
In the present work, juvenile development and physiological state of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosum were investigated by means of individual rearing under controlled conditions. Males required 4-5 years for development from first juvenile instar to adulthood, passing through 8 to 12 juvenile molts. Females developed to adults in 5-6 years with a variable juvenile molt number from 9 to 13. The development and growth of males and females took place in a similar way until the last juvenile molt leading to subadults. Ecdysteroids, total lipid, cholesterol, and protein concentrations increased along with the different development instars in both males and females. After the last juvenile molt, spiders presented morphological and biochemical sex differences. Subadult and adulthood males were smaller in size and weight than females; hemolymph levels of ecdysteroids, total lipids, cholesterol, and glucose were higher in males. These physiological and biochemical differences can be correlated to the different sexual development between males and females.
Hemolymfa u samcou pocas ontogenezy vykazuje rozdielne hodnoty: hormonu ecdysteroid, lipidov, glukozy, choresterolu a bielkovin oproti samici. Najsignifikantnejsi je rozdiel v tychto vyvojovych stadiach hlavne u paramatrov subadult, adult samca, ktory ich ma vsetky vyssie.

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Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 12. Januára 2013, 23:48

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Ferretti N., González A., Pérez-Miles F., .2012. Historical Biogeography of the Genus Cyriocosmus (Araneae Theraphosidae) in the Neotropics According to an Even -Based Method and Spatial Analysis of Vicariance. Zoological Studies 51(4): 526-535
Historical biogeography of the genus Cyriocosmus (Araneae: Theraphosidae) in the Neotropics according to an event-based method and spatial analysis of vicariance. Zoological Studies 51(4): 526-535. The distributional history of the South American endemic genus Cyriocosmus (Araneae, Theraphosidae) was reconstructed, and a spatial analysis of vicariance was conducted. Results obtained with the software RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies), suggest that Cyriocosmus originated within an area currently represented by the biogeographical subregions of the Amazonian and Paramo Punan. We found 3 vicariant nodes: the 1st into the Amazonian-Caribbean, the 2nd into the Caribbean, and the 3rd into the Amazonian-Parana, Amazonian-Chacoan, and Amazonian-Parana and Chacoan. Using the Vicariance Inference Program we found that 1 vicariant node different from that obtained with RASP, and the hypothetical barriers for the clade were represented by the Voronoi lines in South America. In order to interpret biogeographical events that affected the genus Cyriocosmus, these results are contrasted with major geological events that occurred in South America, and also with previous biogeographical hypotheses.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 14. Januára 2013, 21:24

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Utasi Á., .2012. Local Appearance Feature Based Classification of the Theraphosidae Family. In: Visual observation and analysis of animal and insect behavior
This paper addresses the problem of feature based classification of spider images. In this work we focus on the Theraphosidae family (known colloquially as Tarantula), usually comprising very large and often hairy arachnids. This family contains approximately 120 genera and over 900 species. With the help of breeders and other experts we created a carefully validated dataset containing images of seven species, which are the most widely available commercially. In the classification scheme we followed a bag of visual words approach. First, from the images we extracted local color descriptors, then we created a vocabulary to represent each image as a document of visual words. Finally, we trained and evaluated three different classifiers to predict the class labels of the test set.

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http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/rbf/VAIB12PAPERS/utasi.pdf

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Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 15. Januára 2013, 20:36

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Keswani S. & Vankhede G., .2012. RE-DESCRIPTION OF LITTLE KNOWN THERAPHOSID SPIDER, Chilobrachys assamensis HIRST, 1909. Indian Journal of Arachnology, 1(2): 24-29.
The genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1891 is so far represented by eleven species from India: andersoni (Pocock, 1895); assamensis Hirst, 1909; femoralis Pocock, 1900; fimbriatus Pocock, 1899; flavopilosus (Simon, 1884); fumosus (Pocock, 1895); hardwickei (Pocock, 1895); himalayensis (Tikader, 1977); khasiensis (Tikader, 1977); stridulans (Wood Mason, 1877) and thorelli Pocock, 1900.. The distribution of C. assamensis is considered to be restricted to its type locality Assam and recently, it misinterpretated as deadly venomous. In this paper, we are redescribing it in detail after Hirst, 1909.
Reopis druhu Chilobrachys assamensis. Ma to len jednu chybu a to, ze v clanku neuvadza porovnanie s typovym druhom. Tym straca praca na akejkolvek doveryhodnosti. Ide o dve jedince popisane z lokality Assam. Preto sa pytam, ako autori vylucili, ze sa na tejto lokalite nemoze nachadzat viacero Chilobrachys sp.? Dokumentacia a pouzivana terminologia nesplnuje poziadavky modernejsej prezentacie tohto typu clanku.

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Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 21. Januára 2013, 23:47

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Herzig, Volker, Hodgson, Wayne C. and Rowan, Edward G. (2011) TTX, cations and spider venom modify avian muscle tone in vitro. Journal of Venom Research, 2 : 1-5. 
ABSTRACT
Agents that reduce skeletal muscle tone may have a number of useful clinical applications, e.g., for muscle spasticity and other muscle disorders. Recently, we reported that the venoms of two species of Australian theraphosid (Araneae, Theraphosidae) spiders (Coremiocnemis tropix and Selenotholus foelschei) reduced the baseline tension of chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. The purpose of this study was to determine the underlying physiology mediating the change in muscle tension, which was addressed by conducting isometric tension experiments. We found that MgCl2 (20mM), CaCl2 (20mM), tetrodotoxin (1μM) or C. tropix venom (2μl/ml) produced a similar decrease in baseline tension, whereas d-tubocurarine (100μM), gadolinium (1mM), verapamil (10mM), an increase in osmotic pressure by the addition of glucose (40mM), or the presence/ absence of electrical stimulation did not produce a signifi cant change in baseline tension. We suggest that mechanosensitive or muscle TTX-sensitive sodium channels are activated during muscle stretch. This may have implications for the treatment of stretch induced muscle damage.
Pri skumani zlozenia jedu vtackarov Coremiocnemis tropix a Selenotholus foelschei sa nasli aj latky, ktore by mohli sluzit na znizenie svaloveho napatia alebo inych svalovych ochoreni u ludi.

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Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 2. Februára 2013, 18:29

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Mortari MR, Almeida Santos Mde F, Schwartz EF. 2013. Venomic and pharmacological activity of Acanthoscurria paulensis (Theraphosidae) spider venom. Toxicon. 2013 Jan;61:129-38. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.11.008.
Abstract
In the present study we conducted proteomic and pharmacological characterizations of the venom extracted from the Brazilian tarantula Acanthoscurria paulensis, and evaluated the cardiotoxicity of its two main fractions. The molecular masses of the venom components were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) after chromatographic separation (HPLC). The lethal dose (LD50) was determined in mice. Nociceptive behavior was evaluated by intradermal injection in mice and the edematogenic activity by the rat hind-paw assay. Cardiotoxic activity was evaluated on in situ frog heart and on isolated frog ventricle strip. From 60 chromatographic fractions, 97 distinct components were identified, with molecular masses between 601.4 and 21,932.3 Da. A trimodal molecular mass distribution was observed: 30% of the components within 500-1999 Da, 38% within 3500–5999 Da and 21% within 6500–7999 Da. The LD50 in mice was 25.4 ± 2.4 μg/g and the effects observed were hypoactivity, anuria, constipation, dyspnea and prostration until death, which occurred at higher doses. Despite presenting a dose-dependent edematogenic activity in the rat hind-paw assay, the venom had no nociceptive activity in mice. Additionally, the venom induced a rapid blockage of electrical activity and subsequent diastolic arrest on in situ frog heart preparation, which was inhibited by pretreatment with atropine. In the electrically driven frog ventricle strip, the whole venom and its low molecular mass fraction, but not the proteic one, induced a negative inotropic effect that was also inhibited by atropine. These results suggest that despite low toxicity, A. paulensis venom can induce severe physiological disturbances in mice.

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Hendrixson, Brent E. et al. 2012. An exploration of species boundaries in turret-building tarantulas of the Mojave Desert (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae, Aphonopelma). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (2013) 327–340.

Tarantulas in the North American genus Aphonopelma are poorly known due to their challenging patterns of morphological variation and questionable taxonomy; few specimens can be confidently identified using existing keys or comparisons to original descriptions. In an effort to identify new strategies for resolving what has been characterized as a ‘‘taxonomic and nomenclatural nightmare’’, we employed five different approaches for delimiting species in a group of closely related tarantulas from the Mojave Desert in the southwestern United States. These methods included the application of single techniques (morphology, DNA barcoding, shared genealogical exclusivity among independent loci, and generalized mixed Yule coalescent) and an integrative approach that incorporates genealogical and ecological information. Results demonstrate that the taxonomy of these spiders as presently defined underestimates actual species - level diversity and the group is in need of revision. The number of species delimited by each approach, however, was variable and we argue that it is this discordance that emphasizes the importance of incorporating multiple lines of evidence into an integrative taxonomic framework that can be used for constructing robust taxonomic hypotheses for Aphonopelma species.

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Masan P, Simpson C, Perotti MA, Braig HR, et al. Mites Parasitic on Australasian and African Spiders Found in the Pet Trade; a Redescription of Ljunghia pulleinei Womersley. PLoS One 2012;7:e39019.
Abstract
Parasitic mites associated with spiders are spreading world-wide through the trade in tarantulas and other pet species. Ljunghia pulleinei Womersley, a mesostigmatic laelapid mite originally found in association with the mygalomorph spider Selenocosmia stirlingi Hogg (Theraphosidae) in Australia, is redescribed and illustrated on the basis of specimens from the African theraphosid spider Pterinochilus chordatus (Gersta¨cker) kept in captivity in the British Isles (Wales). The mite is known from older original descriptions of Womersley in 1956; the subsequent redescription of Domrow in 1975 seems to be questionable in conspecificity of treated specimens with the type material. Some inconsistencies in both descriptions are recognised here as intraspecific variability of the studied specimens. The genus Arachnyssus Ma, with species A. guangxiensis (type) and A. huwenae, is not considered to be a valid genus, and is included in synonymy with Ljunghia Oudemans. A new key to world species of the genus Ljunghia is provided.

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Re: Novinky v taxonomii a vo svete vtackarov

Príspevok od užívateľa Sceptic » 19. Februára 2013, 18:17

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DOR, A., HENAUT, Y. 2012. Silk use and spiderling behavior in the tarantula Brachypelma vagans (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Acta Zool. Mex [online]. 2012, vol.28, n.1, pp. 1-12. ISSN 0065-1737. 
ABSTRACT
Brachypelma vagas belongs to a genus of tarantulas protected against illegal trading. Its distribution range is in Mesoamerica. The spiderlings remain together in the maternal burrow after hatching and after several weeks, they disperse forming a column of about hundred individuals leading away from the burrow. In several spider species, during the gregarious phase and dispersion, spiderlings do not show aggressive behavior toward siblings. Silk is an important element in dispersion. However, knowledge of the first stage of B. vagans life is scarce. In the present study, therefore, we describe the natural history of the first stage of life of this species, with particular attention to the development, silk production, interactions between sibling and dispersion. Two egg sacs were collected in the field and maintained in laboratory conditions, without the mother. After hatching, we counted 200 individuals per egg sac; they are cream colored and 2–3 mm long. The first molt occurred at emergence, and the second, five or six days after hatching. After that, a black point appeared on the dorsal part of the abdomen of each spiderling. Production of silk by the spiderlings began from hatching. Dispersion occurred in one group of siblings on the 8th day after emergence, with the production of a thread of silk stretching for at least one meter out of the box. The silk thread produced by the spiderlings during dispersal, could act as a physical guide to indicate the route, or as the support of chemical signs for the orientation of the spid–erlings. The absence of silk thread reported in field observations of dispersal could be explained by the fact that it is difficult to see, by lack of production or by production that is environment–dependent. In the group where dispersion was not permitted, no aggressive behavior was observed between siblings; however, a drastic diminution of the individual number occurred in the course of the two–month observation. Mortality could be explained by diseases, unsuitable environmental conditions related to the mother's absence or not. On the other hand, the remaining spiderlings showed an enlargement of their abdomen in spite of refusal to eat the diary food proposed. It is likely they ate spiderling cadavers or silk. This work offers new knowledge about the first life stage in tarantulas and could be used as a basis for more detailed studies on spiderlings of the tarantula group.


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